What are the main causes of rural-urban migration in South Africa

What are the main causes of rural-urban migration in South Africa: Concept of rural-urban migration: in South Africa, people move out of rural areas due to negative factors in the rural areas, for example:

  • unemployment,
  • poverty,
  • poor services

These negative factors are referred to as push factors. The positive factors in urban areas, which attract people to cities are called pull factors.

The challenges that rural-urban migration cause in South Africa

The influx of people to urban areas poses great challenges to the government and it’s resources allocation process, such as:

  • increased population-growth in urban area
  • increased housing infrastructure challenges.

Causes and consequences of rural depopulation on people and the economy:

  • Young adults move away and more so young men
  • Elderly, women and children are left behind
  • Productivity in rural areas drop
  • Income declines
  • Services close down as they are not supported anymore
  • Poverty increases
  • More people leave the rural areas
  • Displacement of families and social problems

Solutions to rural-urban migration in South Africa

The following are the solutions to the rural-urban migration challenges in South Africa, which the government can apply:

  • Job creation projects in rural areas
  • Decentralisation of industries
  • Development corridors
  • Improved basic services in rural areas
  • Skills development in rural areas
  • Farming related industries in rural areas
  • Improved transport, health, education services
  • Retirement villages in rural towns to attract people there
  • Incentives for professionals and employers to settle in rural areas
  • Development of eco-tourism through conservation of natural habitats and thus creating income opportunities for the local population

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