Economics Grade 12 Essays pdf Download: On this page you will find list of Economics Grade 12 essay questions and Answers based on the previous exam questions.

The marking of a Grade 12 economics essay would follow these guidelines:

Introduction: The introduction should define the main concept or concepts related to the question topic. It should not repeat the question, nor should it include what will be discussed in the body. Essentially, the introduction serves as a brief statement of the topic at hand without giving away the main points of discussion.

Body: Main Part (26 marks maximum): The main body of the essay should be detailed and comprehensive. It could involve discussing, analyzing, comparing, evaluating, distinguishing, or explaining the topic. If the question requires it, the essay might also include graphs and their explanations. Up to 8 marks can be given for the appropriate use of headings or examples that support the argument or demonstrate understanding.

In addition to the main discussion, the essay could also include a critical discussion or evaluation, deductions, comparisons, interpretations, or suggestions. This part is considered more analytical and requires a deeper understanding of the topic. Mere listing of facts can earn up to 2 marks.

Conclusion: The conclusion should provide a summary of what has been discussed, without repeating facts already mentioned. It should ideally include an opinion or judgement, based on the discussion in the body. Additional support information could be provided to strengthen the discussion or analysis. Contradictory viewpoints could also be presented, with proper motivation or reasoning. Finally, recommendations based on the discussion can be included.

Please note that the marks allotted for the conclusion are not mentioned in the information you provided. Typically, marking schemes will specify how many marks are allocated to each part of the essay, including the conclusion.

Economics Grade 12 Essay Questions pdf download

June 2022 Essay Questions and Answers Examples:


  • Discuss in detail the reasons for international trade. (26 marks) 
  • How can a weaker rand impact on South Africa’s trade with other countries? (10 marks) 

Essay Answer: Discuss in detail the reasons for international trade

INTRODUCTION: International trade refers to the exchange of goods and services between different countries. It has been a fundamental aspect of economic development and globalization throughout history. International trade plays a crucial role in the growth and prosperity of nations by allowing them to access a wider range of resources, markets, and opportunities. It facilitates the flow of goods, capital, and ideas across borders, contributing to economic interdependence and cooperation among nations.


  1. The size of the population: The size of a country’s population influences its demand for goods and services. When the population increases, there is a corresponding increase in demand as more people’s needs must be satisfied. Local suppliers may not always be able to meet this growing demand, leading to a reliance on imported goods and services.
  2. Income levels: Changes in income levels impact the demand for goods and services. An increase in per capita income provides individuals with more disposable income, which can be spent on both local and imported goods. As people’s income rises, they tend to seek higher-quality products, including luxury goods, many of which are produced in other countries.
  3. Increase in wealth: An increase in the wealth of a population leads to greater demand for goods. As people become wealthier, they have access to loans and can afford to spend more on luxury goods. This often results in the importation of luxury products from other countries that offer a wider range of options.
  4. Preferences and tastes: Consumer preferences and tastes play a significant role in international trade. Different countries have distinct preferences for certain products that may not be produced locally. As a result, these products need to be imported, creating market demand and value for them.
  5. Difference in consumption patterns: The level of economic development in a country determines its consumption patterns. Poorer countries may have a higher demand for basic goods and services but a lower demand for luxury goods. This difference in consumption patterns leads to international trade as countries seek to fulfill their unique needs and preferences through imports.
  6. Natural resources: Natural resources are not evenly distributed across countries. Each nation possesses different types and quantities of resources, which can only be exploited in places where they exist. Countries with abundant natural resources often export them to countries lacking those resources, creating a basis for international trade.
  7. Climatic conditions: Climatic conditions can influence a country’s ability to produce certain goods at a lower cost compared to others. For example, countries with favorable climates for agriculture may specialize in producing agricultural commodities such as coffee, tea, or tropical fruits. These countries then export their surplus production to regions where such goods are not easily cultivated.
  8. Labor resources: Labor resources vary in terms of quality, quantity, and cost across countries. Some nations have highly skilled, well-paid workers with high productivity levels, while others may have a lower-skilled or less productive labor force. Countries with a comparative advantage in certain industries or sectors may specialize in those areas and export their products to other nations.
  9. Technological resources: Technological resources and capabilities vary among countries. Some nations possess advanced technologies that enable them to produce certain goods and services more efficiently and at a lower unit cost. This comparative advantage in technology allows them to compete in global markets and export their technologically-driven products.
  10. Specialization: Specialization occurs when countries focus on producing certain goods or services in which they have a comparative advantage. By specializing in the production of specific goods, countries can achieve economies of scale, improve efficiency, and lower production costs. Specialization enables countries to export their specialized goods at a competitive price, promoting international trade.

In conclusion, international trade is driven by various factors, including population size, income levels, wealth, preferences, consumption patterns, natural resources, climatic conditions, labor and technological resources, and specialization.

How can a weaker rand impact on South Africa’s trade with other countries?

The impact of a weaker rand on South Africa’s trade with other countries can be both positive and negative. Here are some ways in which a weaker rand can affect trade:

Positive Impact:

  1. Increased Quantity of Exports: A weaker rand can make South African products more affordable in countries with stronger currencies. This can lead to an increase in the quantity of exports as the prices of South African goods become comparatively cheaper.
  2. Boost in Tourism: The depreciation of the rand can attract more international tourists from countries with stronger currencies. These tourists can benefit from favorable exchange rates, allowing them to get more value for their money in South Africa. This increase in tourism can contribute to economic growth and generate foreign exchange.
  3. Improved Balance of Payments: If the revenue generated from South Africa’s exports exceeds the expenditure on imports, it can lead to an improvement in the country’s balance of payments. A weaker rand can make exports more competitive, potentially increasing export earnings.
  4. Promoting Local Consumption: A weaker rand can make imported goods more expensive. As a result, consumers may be more inclined to purchase locally produced goods, thus boosting consumption of domestic products and supporting local industries.

Negative Impact:

  1. Cost-Push Inflation: A weaker rand can make imported inputs more expensive for domestic producers. This can lead to increased production costs and, in turn, inflationary pressure as producers may need to raise prices to maintain profitability.
  2. Trade Deficit: If the cost of imports exceeds the revenue generated from exports, it can create a trade deficit. A weaker rand may make imports more expensive, potentially contributing to a deficit in the balance of payments.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the impact of a weaker rand on South Africa’s trade can have both positive and negative consequences. It is important for countries to assess their absolute and comparative advantages in order to trade successfully with other nations. This understanding can help countries leverage their strengths and navigate the effects of currency fluctuations on their trade relationships.

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