Solved: Why do you Think Johannesburg was established?

Johannesburg, often referred to as the “City of Gold,” was established primarily due to the discovery of gold deposits in the Witwatersrand Basin. The city was officially founded in 1886, and it didn’t take long for it to become the focal point of one of the largest gold rushes in history. Here are some interesting facts to elaborate on why Johannesburg was established:

Discovery of Gold

  • Fact: George Harrison, an Australian prospector, is credited with discovering gold on Langlaagte Farm in 1886, although he sold his claim for a mere £10 and disappeared without realizing the magnitude of his discovery.

Rapid Population Growth

  • Fact: The gold rush attracted people from all over the world, leading to a population explosion. Within three years of its founding, Johannesburg became South Africa’s largest city.

Economic Impact

  • Fact: The gold resources in Johannesburg were so extensive that they accounted for almost 40% of all the gold ever mined on Earth. This dramatically changed the economic landscape of South Africa.

Migrant Labor System

  • Fact: The mining industry’s demand for labor led to the creation of a migrant labor system that drew workers from all over Southern Africa, deeply influencing the region’s social fabric.

Urbanization and Infrastructure

  • Fact: As more people moved to Johannesburg in search of fortune, the city quickly expanded, leading to the establishment of critical infrastructure including railways and telecommunication systems, as well as cultural centers and institutions.

Political Ramifications

  • Fact: The city’s gold riches were one of the main reasons behind the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902), as both British and Boer forces sought control over this precious resource.

Multi-cultural Tapestry

  • Fact: The gold rush led to a melting pot of cultures as people from different countries converged in Johannesburg, making it one of the most ethnically diverse cities in South Africa.

Environmental Impact

  • Fact: Mining activities drastically altered Johannesburg’s landscape. Even today, the city is dotted with ‘mine dumps,’ which are mounds of mining waste.

Transformation into a Global City

  • Fact: Although initially established due to gold, Johannesburg has diversified its economy over the years and is now a leading financial center, not just in South Africa but in the world.

The establishment of Johannesburg wasn’t just about mining gold; it had far-reaching implications affecting economics, politics, society, and even the environment. It stands as a fascinating example of how the discovery of a single natural resource can lead to the creation of a world-renowned city.


What Type of Settlement is Johannesburg?

  • Johannesburg is an urban settlement and is the largest city in South Africa.

Where is Johannesburg Located?

  • Johannesburg is located in the northeastern part of South Africa, in the province of Gauteng.

When and By Who was Johannesburg Founded?

  • Johannesburg was officially founded on 4 October 1886. George Harrison, an Australian prospector, is credited with discovering gold in the area, leading to the establishment of the city.

Is Johannesburg Large or Small?

  • Johannesburg is large, both in terms of geographical area and population. It’s South Africa’s largest city and is considered one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world.

Is Johannesburg a Rural or Urban Settlement?

  • Johannesburg is an urban settlement. It’s a bustling metropolis with skyscrapers, shopping malls, and diverse neighborhoods.

Is Johannesburg the Capital of South Africa?

  • No, Johannesburg is not the capital of South Africa. South Africa has three capital cities: Pretoria (administrative), Bloemfontein (judicial), and Cape Town (legislative).

What Is Johannesburg Known For?

  • Johannesburg is often known as the “City of Gold” due to its origins as a gold-mining town. It is also a major financial and cultural hub in South Africa.

What Is the Main Industry in Johannesburg?

  • Although it started as a mining town, Johannesburg has diversified its economy. Finance, real estate, and professional services are now some of the city’s main industries.

What Languages Are Commonly Spoken?

  • English is widely spoken and serves as the principal medium of instruction in schools and businesses. However, the city is multicultural, and you’ll hear a variety of languages, including Zulu, Sotho, and Afrikaans.

Is Johannesburg Safe for Tourists?

  • Like any major city, Johannesburg has areas that are safe and others that are less so. While it has a reputation for high crime rates, many tourists visit without incident. It’s always a good idea to take general safety precautions and stay in well-known areas.

What Are the Main Tourist Attractions?

  • Johannesburg has numerous attractions, including the Apartheid Museum, Gold Reef City, and the Johannesburg Zoo. The Maboneng Precinct is popular for its vibrant arts scene.

What Is the Climate Like?

  • Johannesburg has a subtropical highland climate. Summers are warm and wet, while winters are cool and dry.

How Do People Commute in Johannesburg?

  • The city has a range of public transportation options, including buses and a commuter train system known as the Metrorail. The Gautrain is a modern rapid rail system connecting key areas.

How Does Johannesburg Impact the South African Economy?

  • Johannesburg is considered the economic powerhouse of South Africa. It contributes a significant portion of the country’s GDP and is home to various multinational corporations.

What Are the Educational Opportunities?

  • Johannesburg is home to several universities and colleges, providing a range of educational opportunities. The University of the Witwatersrand and the University of Johannesburg are among the well-known institutions.

What Are the Sports Facilities Like?

  • The city is home to several stadiums and sports complexes, including the FNB Stadium, one of the largest stadiums in the world. Soccer is extremely popular, but you’ll also find facilities for rugby, cricket, and other sports.

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